The film A Clockwork Orange utilizes both diegetic and extra-diegetic sound as a large way of conveying meaning in the story.
For most of the film, when there is extra-diegetic music, it is usually classical and more often than not Beethoven. Our first experience with this interesting music choice is during the almost-rape scene. First off, the women’s screams of terror along with the classical music backdrop creates a strong juxtaposition. On one hand, you have this barbaric and graphic act that’s about to take place. On the other, you have music that is cultured and deemed as high-society. This is a trend that continues throughout the film, such as when Alex launches a surprise attack on Georgie and Dim.
Classical music is most famously used as an indicator of when Alex is feeling in control of a situation, or when he is in his groove. The moment something happens that throws off his “plan” the music stops and we are brought into the real world of consequences along with him. A scene that masterfully melds the extra-diegetic and diegetic is the hectic sex scene where the entire experience is fast-forwarded. The music makes the scene seem more comic than romantic, and the speeding up of the scene adds to the idea that its “all part of the plan.”
Music is also used as a foreshadowing mechanism. When the minister is walking through the prison, Pomp and Circumstance is playing. This is a notorious graduation song, and I immediately assumed that Alex would be freed from the prison, or “graduate” from his current situation.